Decreto n.º 23/2017

CourtNegócios Estrangeiros
Publication Date31 Jul 2017

Decreto n.º 23/2017

de 31 de julho

A problemática das espécies introduzidas em meios marinhos, vulgarmente designadas por exóticas ou invasoras, através das águas de lastro dos navios tem sido alvo de grande preocupação a nível mundial, sendo considerada uma das quatro maiores ameaças aos oceanos do mundo, com efeitos deletérios sobre a biodiversidade, a pesca, o turismo e a saúde humana, entre outros, sendo as outras ameaças a contaminação marinha por fontes terrestres, a sobre-exploração dos recursos vivos do mar e a destruição de habitats.

Face a esta ameaça com graves consequências socioeconómicas, têm sido diversas as tentativas de prevenção e combate da introdução de espécies, em particular no que respeita às águas de lastro dos navios no tráfego internacional.

Em resposta à ameaça colocada pelas espécies marinhas invasoras, a Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre o Meio Ambiente e o Desenvolvimento, realizada no Rio de Janeiro, em 1992, exortou a Organização Marítima Internacional (OMI) e outros organismos internacionais a tomar medidas para abordar a transferência de organismos nocivos pelos navios.

Posteriormente, em 2002, a Cimeira Mundial sobre o Desenvolvimento Sustentável, celebrada em Joanesburgo, na África do Sul, confirmou o compromisso com os resultados alcançados na Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre o Meio Ambiente e o Desenvolvimento, realizada no Rio de Janeiro, em 1992, tendo apelado para a aceleração do desenvolvimento de medidas para abordar a ameaça das espécies invasoras na água de lastro e convidado a OMI a finalizar a Convenção das Águas de Lastro.

A OMI, como uma agência especializada das Nações Unidas responsável pela regulamentação internacional relativa à segurança dos navios e à prevenção da poluição marinha, posicionou-se na vanguarda das iniciativas internacionais para resolver o problema das águas de lastro dos navios, tendo nesse sentido adotado as resoluções A.774(18), de 1993, e A.868(20), de 1997, com a finalidade de minimizar a transferência de organismos aquáticos nocivos e agentes patogénicos.

Entretanto, vários Estados adotaram medidas de caráter individual com o objetivo de prevenir, minimizar e, em última instância, eliminar os riscos da introdução de organismos aquáticos nocivos e agentes patogénicos para os navios que entrem nos seus portos.

Reconhecendo que esta preocupação de interesse global exige medidas baseadas em regras aplicáveis à escala global que permitam prevenir, minimizar e, por último, eliminar os riscos para a biodiversidade, a pesca, o turismo e a saúde humana, entre outros, a OMI adotou, através de Conferência Diplomática realizada em fevereiro de 2004, a Convenção Internacional para o Controlo e Gestão das Águas de Lastro e Sedimentos dos Navios.

Esta Convenção, que agora cabe aprovar, tem assim como objetivo prevenir, minimizar e, por último, eliminar a transferência de organismos nocivos e agentes patogénicos.

Assim:

Nos termos da alínea c) do n.º 1 do artigo 197.º da Constituição, o Governo aprova, para adesão, a Convenção Internacional para o Controlo e Gestão das Águas de Lastro e Sedimentos dos Navios, adotada em Londres a 13 de fevereiro de 2004, e cujo texto, na versão autêntica em língua inglesa e respetiva tradução certificada em língua portuguesa, se publica em anexo.

Visto e aprovado em Conselho de Ministros de 29 de junho de 2017. - António Luís Santos da Costa - Augusto Ernesto Santos Silva - Ana Paula Mendes Vitorino.

Assinado em 10 de julho de 2017.

Publique-se.

O Presidente da República, Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa.

Referendado em 18 de julho de 2017.

O Primeiro-Ministro, António Luís Santos da Costa.

International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004

The Parties to this Convention,

Recalling Article 196(1) of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which provides that "States shall take all measures necessary to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment resulting from the use of technologies under their jurisdiction or control, or the intentional or accidental introduction of species, alien or new, to a particular part of the marine environment, which may cause significant and harmful changes thereto,"

Noting the objectives of the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and that the transfer and introduction of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens via ships' ballast water threatens the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity as well as decision IV/5 of the 1998 Conference of the Parties (COP 4) to the CBD concerning the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal ecosystems, as well as decision VI/23 of the 2002 Conference of the Parties (COP 6) to the CBD on alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species, including guiding principles on invasive species,

Noting further that the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) requested the International Maritime Organization (the Organization) to consider the adoption of appropriate rules on ballast water discharge,

Mindful of the precautionary approach set out in Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and referred to in resolution MEPC.67(37), adopted by the Organization's Marine Environment Protection Committee on 15 September 1995,

Also mindful that the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, in paragraph 34(b) of its Plan of Implementation, calls for action at all levels to accelerate the development of measures to address invasive alien species in ballast water,

Conscious that the uncontrolled discharge of Ballast Water and Sediments from ships has led to the transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens, causing injury or damage to the environment, human health, property and resources,

Recognizing the importance placed on this issue by the Organization through Assembly resolutions A.774(18) in 1993 and A.868(20) in 1997, adopted for the purpose of addressing the transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens,

Recognizing further that several States have taken individual action with a view to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the risks of introduction of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens through ships entering their ports, and also that this issue, being of worldwide concern, demands action based on globally applicable regulations together with Guidelines for their effective implementation and uniform interpretation,

Desiring to continue the development of safer and more effective Ballast Water Management options that will result in continued prevention, minimization and ultimate elimination of the transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens,

Resolved to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the risks to the environment, human health, property and resources arising from the transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens through the control and management of ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, as well as to avoid unwanted side-effects from that control and to encourage developments in related knowledge and technology,

Considering that these objectives may best be achieved by the conclusion of an International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments,

have agreed as follows:

Article 1

Definitions

For the purpose of this Convention, unless expressly provided otherwise:

1 - "Administration" means the Government of the State under whose authority the ship is operating. With respect to a ship entitled to fly a flag of any State, the Administration is the Government of that State. With respect to floating platforms engaged in exploration and exploitation of the sea-bed and subsoil thereof adjacent to the coast over which the coastal State exercises sovereign rights for the purposes of exploration and exploitation of its natural resources, including Floating Storage Units (FSUs) and Floating Production Storage and Offloading Units (FPSOs), the Administration is the Government of the coastal State concerned.

2 - "Ballast Water" means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

3 - "Ballast Water Management" means mechanical, physical, chemical, and biological processes, either singularly or in combination, to remove, render harmless, or avoid the uptake or discharge of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens within Ballast Water and Sediments.

4 - "Certificate" means the International Ballast Water Management Certificate.

5 - "Committee" means the Marine Environment Protection Committee of the Organization.

6 - "Convention" means the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments.

7 - "Gross tonnage" means the gross tonnage calculated in accordance with the tonnage measurement regulations contained in Annex I to the International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969 or any successor Convention.

8 - "Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens" means aquatic organisms or pathogens which, if introduced into the sea, including estuaries, or into fresh water courses, may create hazards to the environment, human health, property or resources, impair biological diversity or interfere with other legitimate uses of such areas.

9 - "Organization" means the International Maritime Organization.

10 - "Secretary-General" means the Secretary-General of the Organization.

11 - "Sediments" means matter settled out of Ballast Water within a ship.

12 - "Ship" means a vessel of any type whatsoever operating in the aquatic environment and includes submersibles, floating craft, floating platforms, FSUs and FPSOs.

Article 2

General Obligations

1 - Parties undertake to give full and complete effect to the provisions of this Convention and the Annex thereto in order to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens through the control and management of ships' Ballast Water and Sediments.

2 -...

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