Decreto n.º 14/2019
Decreto n.º 14/2019
de 16 de abril
Em 29 de março de 1972 foi adotada em Washington, Londres e Moscovo, a Convenção sobre Responsabilidade Internacional por Danos Causados por Objetos Espaciais, que entrou em vigor em 1 de setembro de 1972.
Esta Convenção tem por base o Tratado sobre os Princípios Que Regem as Atividades dos Estados na Exploração e Utilização do Espaço Exterior, Incluindo a Lua e Outros Corpos Celestes, assinado em Washington, Londres e Moscovo, a 27 de janeiro de 1967, aprovado para adesão pelo Decreto-Lei n.º 286/71, de 30 de junho, que estabeleceu um conjunto de princípios reguladores da atividade espacial, de entre os quais o princípio da responsabilidade dos Estados pelas atividades espaciais nacionais que efetuem.
Com base no referido princípio da responsabilidade dos Estados, a Convenção sobre Responsabilidade Internacional por Danos Causados por Objetos Espaciais estabelece um regime sistematizado de regras e procedimentos internacionais efetivos de responsabilidade por danos causados por objetos espaciais, de modo a assegurar, em particular, o pagamento de uma indemnização equitativa às vítimas de tais danos.
A vinculação da República Portuguesa a esta Convenção contribuirá para o reforço da cooperação internacional no domínio da exploração e utilização do espaço exterior para fins pacíficos. A adesão da República Portuguesa à Convenção é particularmente importante, atendendo à aposta crescente do país no setor espacial, designadamente através do aumento da participação nacional na Agência Espacial Europeia e no programa europeu Space Surveillance and Tracking, bem como através da aprovação da Estratégia Portugal Espaço 2030, pela Resolução do Conselho de Ministros n.º 30/2018, de 12 de março, do regime de acesso e exercício de atividades espaciais, pelo Decreto-Lei n.º 16/2019, de 22 de janeiro, e da criação da Agência Espacial Portuguesa, determinada pela Resolução do Conselho de Ministros n.º 55/2019, de 13 de março.
Nos termos da alínea c) do n.º 1 do artigo 197.º da Constituição, o Governo aprova, para adesão, a Convenção sobre Responsabilidade por Danos Causados por Objetos Espaciais, adotada em Washington, Londres e Moscovo, em 29 de março de 1972, cujo texto, na versão autenticada em língua inglesa e respetiva tradução para a língua portuguesa, se publica em anexo.
Visto e aprovado em Conselho de Ministros de 21 de março de 2019. - Augusto Ernesto Santos Silva - Augusto Ernesto Santos Silva - João Alberto Sobrinho Teixeira.
Assinado em 27 de março de 2019.
O Presidente da República, Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa.
Referendado em 8 de abril de 2019.
O Primeiro-Ministro, António Luís Santos da Costa.
CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE CAUSED BY SPACE OBJECTS
The States Parties to this Convention,
Recognising the common interest of all mankind in furthering the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,
Recalling the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,
Taking into consideration that, notwithstanding the precautionary measures to be taken by States and international intergovernmental organisations involved in the launching of space objects, damage may on occasion be caused by such objects,
Recognising the need to elaborate effective international rules and procedures concerning liability for damage caused by space objects and to ensure, in particular, the prompt payment under the terms of this Convention of a full and equitable measure of compensation to victims of such damage,
Believing that the establishment of such rules and procedures will contribute to the strengthening of international co-operation in the field of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,
have agreed on the following:
For the purposes of this Convention:
a) The term "damage" means loss of life, personal injury or other impairment of health; or loss of or damage to property of States or of persons, natural or juridical, or property of international intergovernmental organisations;
b) The term "launching" includes attempted launching;
c) The term "launching State" means:
i) A State which launches or procures the launching of a space object;
ii) A State from whose territory or facility a space object is launched;
d) The term "space object" includes component parts of a space object as well as its launch vehicle and parts thereof.
A launching State shall be absolutely liable to pay compensation for damage caused by its space object on the surface of the earth or to aircraft in flight.
In the event of damage being caused elsewhere than on the surface of the earth to a space object of one launching State or to persons or property on board such a space object by a space object of another launching State, the latter shall be liable only if the damage is due to its fault or the fault of persons for whom it is responsible.
1 - In the event of damage being caused elsewhere than on the surface of the earth to a space object of one launching State or to persons or property on board such a space object by a space object of another launching State, and of damage thereby being caused to a third State or to its natural or juridical persons, the first two States shall be jointly and severally liable to the third State, to the extent indicated by the following:
a) If the damage has been caused to the third State on the surface of the earth or to aircraft in flight, their liability to the third State shall be absolute;
b) If the damage has been caused to a space object of the third State or to persons or property on board that space object elsewhere than on the surface of the earth, their liability to the third State shall be based on the fault of either of the first two States or on the fault of persons for whom either is responsible.
2 - In all cases of joint and several liability referred to in paragraph I of this Article, the burden of compensation for the damage shall be apportioned between the first two States in accordance with the extent to which they were at fault; if the extent of the fault of each of these States cannot be established, the burden of compensation shall be apportioned equally between them. Such apportionment shall be without prejudice to the right of the third State to seek the entire compensation due under this Convention from any or all of the launching States which are jointly and severally liable.
1 - Whenever two or more States jointly launch a space object, they shall be jointly and severally liable for any damage caused.
2 - A launching State which has paid compensation for damage shall have the right to present a claim for indemnification to other participants in the joint launching. The participants in a joint launching may conclude agreements regarding the apportioning among themselves of the financial obligation in respect of which they are jointly and severally liable. Such agreements shall be without prejudice to the right of a State sustaining damage to seek the entire compensation due under this Convention from any or all of the launching States which are jointly and severally liable.
3 - A State from whose territory or facility a space object is launched shall be regarded as a participant in a joint launching.
1 - Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article, exoneration from absolute liability shall be granted to the extent that a launching State establishes that the damage has resulted either wholly or partially from gross negligence or from an act or omission done with intent to cause damage on the part of a claimant State or of natural or juridical persons it represents.
2 - No exoneration whatever shall be granted in cases where the damage has resulted from activities conducted by a launching State which are not in conformity with international law including, in particular, the Charter of the United Nations and the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies.
The provisions of this Convention shall not apply to damage caused by a space object of a launching State to:
a) Nationals of that launching State;
b) Foreign nationals during such time as they are participating in the operation of that space object from the time of its launching or at any stage thereafter until its descent, or during such time as they are in the immediate vicinity of a planned launching or recovery area as the result of an invitation by that launching State.
1 - A State which suffers damage, or whose natural or juridical persons suffer damage, may present to a launching State a claim for compensation for such damage.
2 - If the State of nationality has not presented a claim, another State may, in respect of damage sustained in its territory by any natural or juridical person, present a claim to a launching State.
3 - If neither the State of nationality nor the State in whose territory the damage was sustained has presented a claim or notified its intention of presenting a claim, another State may, in respect of damage sustained by its permanent residents, present a claim to a launching State.
A claim for compensation for damage shall be presented to a launching State through diplomatic channels. If a State does not maintain diplomatic relations with the launching State concerned, it may request another State to present its claim to that launching State or otherwise represent its interests under this Convention. It may also present its claim through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, provided the claimant State and the launching State are both Members of the United Nations.
1 - A claim for compensation for damage may be presented to a launching State not later than one year following the date of the occurrence of the damage or the identification of the launching...
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